Before the discovery of artifacts, a proof on existence of an organized monarchical government in ancient Nubia in Africa, has ascribed their civilization to several ancient kingdoms scattered around the world.
The monarchic system of the ancient Nubian kingdom is proven to precede the rise of the earliest Egyptian monarch by several generations and in fact the oldest recognizable kingdoms in human history.
The account and origin of Nubia, was unknown until artifacts showing the Nubian culture were first discovered in 1907 by Egyptologist George A. Reisner
The ancient Nubia consisted of two major regions along the Nile River, from Aswan to Khartoum. Upper Nubia which extends from north to the southern end of the second cataract of the Nile, was known as Kush under the 18th-dynasty pharaohs of ancient Egypt and is now known as present-day central Sudan.
The Nubians were referred to by the Egyptians as “Ta-Seti” which means “The Land of the Bow” for their skill and expertise as an archer.
Nubia was said to have influenced the early civilization of ancient Africa and its birth can be traced from at least 2500 BC upwards. Several kingdoms emanated from ancient Nubia, especially the kingdom of Kush.
Evidence of life in ancient Nubia comprise of things such as jewelry, rock carvings and stone structures.
Little is known about the site and the people that built it. Notwithstanding, historians and archaeologists consider Nabta Playa and other large megalithic monuments in the region as evidence that ancient Nubia was fertile and inhabited.
On a large scale the Nubian people engaged in trade and agriculture. Their trading activities made some of them rich and powerful. Archaeological evidence attests to this, a large number of Egyptian commodities was excavated.
Earlier, it was guessed that Nubia was a typical Stone Age society, made up of scattered tribal clans and chiefdoms however archaeological evidence reveals the strong political structure of Nubia and interestingly, the various symbols of Nubian artifacts that have been found are the same as those associated, in later times, with Egyptian kings.
The new discovery suggests that the ancient Nubians may have amassed this stage of political development as long as 3300 B.C., several generations before the earliest documented Egyptian king.
This discovery is founded upon the study and examination of artifacts excavated from the tombs. The artifacts discovered include hundreds of fragments of jewelry, stone vessels, pottery and ceremonial objects such as incense burners. They were initially retrieved from the Qustul cemetery by Keith C. Seele, a professor at the University of Chicago. The cemetery, which is made up of 33 tombs that were heavily plundered in ancient times, was on the Nile near the recent boundary between Sudan and Egypt.
Dr. Williams, a research associate emphasized that the quantity and quality of the colored pottery and the jewelry shows that the Nubians were wealthy people.
Some of the Nubian artifacts had some engraving symbols resembling those of Egyptian hieroglyphics though they were not readable. However, this suggests that they influenced ancient African literacy and civilization.